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Vacuum Diffusion welding is a precise connection method that relies on mutual diffusion of interface atoms between two parent metals. In recent years, with the development of aerospace, electronics and energy industries, diffusion welding technology has developed rapidly. Diffusion welding plays an important role in the cutting-edge science and technology department. It is one of the main methods for connecting shaped base metals, heat-resistant alloys and new materials (such as high-tech ceramics, intermetallic compounds, composite materials, etc.). Especially for materials that are difficult to join by soldering methods, diffusion soldering has obvious advantages.
Diffusion welding is a reliable connection between the atoms of the base metal and the interfacial atoms at a certain temperature and pressure for a certain period of time. Specifically, the diffusion welding is to press two or more solid phase materials (including the intermediate layer material) together, and to apply a pressure in a vacuum or a protective atmosphere to a temperature below the melting point of the base material, and apply pressure thereto. A connection method in which the interface interface is unevenly deformed to form a close contact, and a solid joint is formed by heat insulation and mutual diffusion of atoms.

Diffusion solder joints are performed under the combined action of higher temperatures, pressures, and protective atmospheres (or vacuum conditions). The effect of temperature and pressure is to plastically deform the microscopic protrusions on the connected surface to increase the tight contact area and activate the diffusion between the interface atoms, but the connection pressure cannot cause the macroscopic plastic deformation of the base material.
Diffusion welding is divided into three stages: the first stage is the plastic deformation of the base metal to make the connection interface contact; the second stage is the interdiffusion of atoms and the grain boundary migration; the third stage is the disappearance of the interface and the hole.